“As mathematicians, we know one of our first rules is no math in public. We want people to think we know how to do it without having to show them we can do it.”
Here we go to have a real surprise, as they say the smoke arise from the big logs. (it is a Persian proverbs showing the importance of experience of elders rather energy of youths)
One of the most important unsolved problems in mathematics may have been solved, retired mathematician Michael Atiyah is set to claim on Monday. In a talk at the Heidelberg Laureate Forum in Germany, Atiyah will present what he refers to as a “simple proof” of the Riemann hypothesis, a problem which has eluded mathematicians for almost 160 years. Continue reading
Calculus is almost the most known branch of mathematics in which over the university students in each discipline from economy to physics would face with it during their study at university.
here you will watch a documentary about its roots and the time it was born. It is an excellent scientific video, although it is an old B.B.C production. Generally they are far away pretentious in compare with today’s scientific documentaries, I think. I hope you enjoy the video: Continue reading
In a report posted online today, Peter Scholze of the University of Bonn and Jakob Stix of Goethe University Frankfurt describe what Stix calls a “serious, unfixable gap” within a mammoth series of papers by Shinichi Mochizuki, a mathematician at Kyoto University who is renowned for his brilliance. Posted online in 2012, Mochizuki’s papers supposedly prove the abc conjecture, one of the most far-reaching problems in number theory.
The fourth video in the Non-linear algebra series is now online!
In this lecture, Mateusz Michałek discusses two fundamental examples of algebraic varieties: linear spaces and Grassmannians.
From nature.com |
An algebra pioneer who faced discrimination deserves wider recognition on the centenary of her namesake theorem.
Emmy Noether was a force in mathematics — and knew it. She was fully confident in her capabilities and ideas. Yet a century on, those ideas, and their contribution to science, often go unnoticed. Most physicists are aware of her fundamental theorem, which puts symmetry at the heart of physical law. But how many know anything of her and her life?
A conference in London this week, the Noether Celebration, hopes to change that. It’s a welcome move. In a world where young scientists look for inspirational female role models, it is hard to think of a more deserving candidate.
Noether was born in 1882 in Erlangen, Germany. Her parents wanted all their children to get doctorates, so although many universities at the time did not formally accept women, she went. After graduation, sexist regulations prevented Noether from getting jobs in academia. Undaunted, for many years she lectured in Erlangen and, from 1915, at the University of Göttingen — often for free.
At the time, that city was the centre of the mathematical world, largely due to the presence of two of its titans — Felix Klein and David Hilbert. But even when Noether was being paid to teach at Göttingen and making her most important contributions, fate and further discrimination intervened: Hitler took power in 1933 and she was fired for being Jewish. She escaped to the United States and taught at Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania, until she died in 1935, at the age of just 53.
Noether devoted her career to algebra and came to see it in a striking new light. “All of us like to rely on figures and formulas,” wrote Bartel van der Waerden, her former student, in his obituary of Noether. “She was concerned with concepts only, not with visualization or calculation.”
Noether saw maths as what are now called structures. To her, the characteristics of a structure’s components — be they numbers, polynomials or something else — mattered less than the networks of relations among an entire set of objects. This enabled her to give proofs that applied to more general structures than the original ones, and which revealed unseen connections.
It was a new and elegant approach that changed the face of algebra. And Noether realized that it could influence other parts of maths. One was topology, a field in which “she published half a sentence and has an everlasting effect”, one mathematician wrote. Before Noether, topologists had been counting holes in doughnuts; she brought to bear the full power of her structures to create something called algebraic topology.
The results that Noether published 100 years ago were, for her, a rare foray into physics, in which she was not particularly interested. Albert Einstein had just developed his general theory of relativity, and was struggling to understand how energy fitted into his equations. Hilbert and Klein were working on it, too, and asked Noether for help.
That she did help is an understatement. Noether’s expertise in symmetry led her to discover that the symmetries of a physical system are inextricably linked to physical quantities that are conserved, such as energy. These ideas became known as Noether’s theorem (E. Noether Nachr. d. Ges. d. Wiss. zu Göttingen, Math.-phys. Kl. 1918, 235–257; 1918).
As well as answering a conundrum in general relativity, this theorem became a guiding principle for the discovery of new physical laws. For example, researchers soon realized that the conservation of net electric charge — which can neither be created nor destroyed — is intimately related to the rotational symmetry of a plane around a point. The impact was profound: those who created the standard model of particle physics, and the researchers who attempt to extend it, think in terms of Noether’s symmetries.
Some biographies inaccurately portray Noether as a somewhat helpless genius at the mercy of men’s charitable actions. In reality, she was an assertive personality, recognized leader and the first female plenary speaker at the renowned International Congress of Mathematicians.
The status of women in mathematics and science has improved since Noether’s time, but bias and discrimination remain. Too few leading female mathematicians receive the recognition they deserve. (Only one woman, Maryam Mirzakhani, has received the Fields Medal, and none has won the Abel Prize — the field’s top awards.) Noether is an inspiration: including to UK mathematician Elizabeth Mansfield, who co-organized the London meeting and works on modern extensions of Noether’s work.
We don’t know how many potential Emmy Noethers have been unfairly denied the chance to show their talents. More people should know — and should celebrate — one who changed the scientific world against the odds.
Among all dreadful news we receive every day, which make us feel pain in our hearts, sometimes there are good news that turn the light of hope in my heart. Among them are the good news correspondent to the situation of women of Middle East. The Area is by itself a dilemma and only few people of habitant of the Area really know what is happening here. Women’s situation has deeply changed, although there are so many unseen and ignored rights. I just read this news from Tehran Times and I felt happy. You cannot modernize a society without literate women. You cannot reform the culture and restructure the economy with illiterate women in which are nearly more than the half population of the society:
TEHRAN – Literacy gap between women and men is decreasing in Iran, reaching to 12 percent compared to 40 percent three decades ago.
According to the latest statistics released by the Statistical Center of Iran, in the Iranian calendar year 1395 (March 2016-March 2017), the number of illiterate women was 5,569,035 while the number of illiterate men was 3,226,518.
However, the number of literate women in the same year was 29,753,843 and the number of literate man stood at 32,912,917.
Although the number of literate people, both men and women are equal at Iranian cities, there is a great gap of illiteracy between men and women in rural areas, head of the Literacy Movement Organization Ali Baqerzadeh has said.
Currently there exists about 1,800,000 illiterate women in Iran, he noted, adding that two thirds of illiterate people are women in the world.
A large number of illiterate children below the age of seventeen are depriving from a literate mother, i.e. there exists a direct and meaningful relation between parent’s literacy and children’s lack of education, Baqerzadeh explained.
The diagram of under-three-year-old children’s mortality rate proves that children’s mortality rate has a direct relationship with the education level of mothers, he added.
I just don’t understand the two last paragraphs of the statement: “there exists a direct and meaningful relation between parent’s literacy and children’s lack of education, Baqerzadeh explained. The diagram of under-three-year-old children’s mortality rate proves that children’s mortality rate has a direct relationship with the education level of mothers, he added.”
Why? do you have any idea?
Reference: Tehran Times | September 10, 2018 |
Teachers who coach teams in a mathematical modeling challenge share ideas for helping students develop more confidence.
What does it take to improve student success and interest in math? The Philadelphia-based Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (SIAM) asked more than 400 U.S. high school math teachers for their advice related to teaching and learning mathematics.
“The good news is that students can have success in math class with the right effort, attitude, and behavior, regardless of a natural affinity or being ‘good at math,’” said Michelle Montgomery, project director of the MathWorks Math Modeling (M3) Challenge at SIAM. “Using quantitative skills to solve real, open-ended problems by employing the mathematical modeling process is a great way to get started.”
The teachers surveyed were all coaches of student teams that participated in the M3 Challenge, a national, internet-based contest with no registration or participation fees. Thousands of high school juniors and seniors spend a weekend in March coming up with a solution to a real-world problem using mathematical modeling. To add a bit of pressure, when the students download the problem, they have only 14 hours to work on it. The 2018 event was the 13th annual contest.
WHAT THE TEACHERS RECOMMEND
1. Build confidence. More than two-thirds of respondents (68 percent) cited lack of confidence as a problem that prevents their students from succeeding in mathematics.
2. Encourage questioning and make space for curiosity. Sixty-six percent of respondents said their best piece of advice for students looking to do well in math was to not only pay attention in class but also ask for clarification when they need to better understand something.
3. Emphasize conceptual understanding over procedure. Three out of four respondents (75 percent) emphasized that working hard to understand math concepts and when to apply them versus simply memorizing formulas is essential to doing well.
4. Provide authentic problems that increase students’ drive to engage with math. Sixty-three percent of participants pointed to students’ desire, initiative, and motivation to succeed in math as being critical, and the majority of them (80 percent) said that applying math to real-world problems helps increase both student interest and understanding.
5. Share positive attitudes about math. Teachers suggest that parents avoid talking negatively about math, and especially avoid saying that it is hard or useless (74 percent)—instead they should encourage their kids not to give up, and help them find math mentors when they’re not able to answer questions (71 percent).
It’s no coincidence that these teaching practices are a regular part of facilitating math modeling. Through modeling, students tackle relevant, authentic, real-world problems. According to Lauren Tabolinsky, academic program manager at MathWorks, making math relevant for students and careers is the reason MathWorks sponsors the M3 Challenge.
SIAM’s Montgomery adds that “inherent in modeling work are things like motivation, identification of variables that affect the issue (no spoon feeding of data or approaches), gut checking of answers, and justifying solutions offered. The result? Interest and enthusiasm for working a problem, and the understanding that being able to use skills in your math toolbox can provide insight into relevant issues facing communities and the world today.”
For example, the 2018 M3 Challenge problem was called “Better ate than never: Reducing wasted food.” Students addressed an issue identified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Approximately one-third of all food produced in the world for human consumption every year goes uneaten.
In the first part of the problem, student teams used mathematics to predict whether the food waste in a given state could feed all of the food-insecure people living there. In the second part, teams created a mathematical model that could be used to determine the amount of food waste a household generates in a year based on their traits and habits. They were given four different types of households to consider.
Finally the teams were challenged to make suggestions about how wasted food might be repurposed. They used mathematical modeling to provide insight into which strategies should be adopted to repurpose the maximal amount of food at the minimum cost, and they accounted for the costs and benefits associated with their strategies.
Because such problems are realistic, big, and messy, student teams have plenty of opportunity to make genuine choices about how they want to go about solving them, which mathematical tools they will apply to develop and test their models, and how they will communicate their solution. There’s plenty of work to go around, so all team members can contribute.
If you relate this M3 Challenge modeling problem to the advice from the teacher coaches above, you can see why participation in math modeling competitions as a team sport can help students develop more mathematical confidence, competence, and interest.
Photo from edutopia.com
Jo Boaler, Michaela Epstein and Michelle Fry on Maths Education, and Saudi Arabia’s bold new education reforms
In this month’s Talking Teaching, Sophie Murphy interviews Stanford University’s Jo Boaler who argues that the latest neuroscience explains what she has always argued – that anyone can do maths. Kerry Elliott talks to Michaela Epstein and Michelle Fry about how on-line maths learning is engaging students and producing impressive results. And finally, Maxine discusses the radical educational reforms being undertaken through the extraordinary partnership between the Melbourne Graduate School of Education and Saudi Arabia.
Comment définir le vivant ? Comment la vie est-elle apparue sur Terre ? Y a-t-il d’autres formes de vie dans l’Univers ? Découvrez où en est la recherche sur toutes ces questions dans ce nouveau dossier multimédia de la collection Sagascience du CNRS : Les origines de la vie
Quelle est votre idée sur cette article :
Dans une enquête, M6 met en lumière ce phénomène de prostitution étudiante à travers le témoignage d’une jeune fille et celui d’un “Daddy”. La France compterait 40.000 Sugar Babies, dont plus de 7.000 seraient étudiantes. Continue reading
|Photo from Longreads.com|
“everything that I understand, I understand only because I love” Leo Tolstoy, book quote from War and Peace
At below I have listed some Useful Books for Geometry and Topology. I hope this list will help you.
- Boothby, W. M. An Introduction to Differentiable Manifolds and Riemannian Geometry.
- Conlon, L. Differentiable Manifolds: A First Course.
- Spivak, M. A Comprehensive Introduction to Differential Geometry, Vol 1.
- Warner, F. Foundations of Differentiable Manifolds and Lie Groups.
- Marvin J. Greenberg, John R. Harper, Algebraic Topology: A First Course.
- Joseph J. Rotman, an Introduction to Algebraic Topology
- Allen Hatcher, Algebraic Topology.
- Spanier, Edwin H. Algebraic Topology.
- Manfredo P. Do Carmo, Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces
- Alfred Gray, Modern Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces
- Barrett O’Neill, Elementary Differential Geometry
- Klingenberg, W., A Course in Differential Geometry
- Bourbaki, N. General Topology.
- Dixmier, J. General Topology.
- John L. Kelley, General Topology.
- James Munkres, Topology.
I just retweeted this quote from algebra fact then I found it very meaningful. I stopped for 2-3 seconds thinking about it. Then I decided to republish it here. I especially recommend you to go and read the comments. I don’t know what’s wrong with us that we are so much conservative?
“Classical mathematicians like Euler would now be called applied mathematicians, de Moivre would maybe be a statistician, Newton a mathematical physicist and Turing a computer scientist and von Neuman an economist.” — Oliver Knill
|Photo by rawpixel.com from Pexels.|
“It’s not what you look at that matters, it’s what you see.” — Henry David Thoreau
Taking the initial steps to start a blog was the hardest part. Although my close friends and family were on board, most people didn’t get the concept.
My experience has been that once you are woman over 35, there’s an expectation that you disappear. You get lost in the role of wife, mother, or the one associated with your career. Sure, these roles are all important. However, they can slowly eclipse your individuality as a woman. My opinion is that we are all (men too) too interesting to be defined by one facet of our life.
Interestingly, by going out of my comfort zone to blog, I’ve become more comfortable with myself. I think taking pictures made me more aware of what works for me and what doesn’t. I don’t go buying clothes in hopes that I will “fit in” to them after losing weight. I just get the size that works for me and take it from there. Let me tell you, life is so much easier when I get dressed in the morning as a result! Blogging also introduced me to a new community.
“The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others.”
— Mahatma Karamchand Gandhi
Every once in a while someone feels overwhelmed by the sheer quantity of posts that I write and they leave a comment asking why do I do this. Or how. Or they even get a bit angry at me for punching the keys so much.
Isn’t this the idea?
The dream is to write. To be able to write as much as possible. Also, the dream is to be able to inspire people and offer them the motivation they need to overcome certain obstacles, to feel as if they can conquer their circumstances and become who they want to be.
“A dream you dream alone is only a dream. A dream you dream together is reality.” — John Lennon
Plain and simply, I find it to be therapeutic.
On top of this factor, the blogging community is a big reason behind why I continue to blog and share my experiences. It is through reading others blog posts, hearing their stories and sharing their experiences that has given me the strength and comfort to be able to share my own.
The Bulletin of the Iranian Mathematical Society (BIMS)–founded in 1974–is a publication of the Iranian Mathematical Society. It provides a platform for presenting high-level mathematical research in most areas of mathematics conceivable by its editorial body and of interest to a considerable readers worldwide. Occasionally, it also publishes invited survey articles on hot topics from distinguished mathematicians. It publishes six issues per year. All published research articles in the Bulletin undergo rigorous peer review, based on initial editor screening, anonymous refereeing by independent expert referees, and consequent revision by article authors when required. Any published article constitutes the final, definitive, and citable version of the work. All manuscripts submitted to the journal must be original contributions, and must be neither under consideration for publication by another journal, nor previously published, in part or whole.
- 2016 Impact Factor: 0.287
- 5-Year Impact Factor: 0.321
BIMS is an international open access journal. It is indexed in:
- Science Citation Index Expanded (ISI)
- Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition
- Mathematical Reviews
- Zentralblatt MATH
- Islamic World Science Citation Center (ISC)
- Directory of Open Access Journals
Starting from October 1st, 2017, all submissions should be done via the online submission system at:
From Vol. 44, January 2018, BIMS will be published by Springer. for additional information Please visit:
FROM: ICM2018 WEBSITE
There is a classic geometric problem, put forward by Ernst Strauss in the 1950s, called the Illumination problem. In it, he asked if a room with mirrored walls can always be illuminated by a single point light source, allowing for the repeated reflection of light off the mirrored walls. Or in other words, can there be a room shape constructed which would leave any point in darkness?
Maryam Mirzakhani devoted her life to solving equations such us these and her brilliant and innovative work in abstract mathematics is being used to shed light on some long-standing physics problems to do with ricocheting and diffusion of light, billiards, wind and other entities. Her findings are expected to have many uses in science, sports and other fields for years to come.
There was a quiet and orderly rush in the direction of the lecture hall on Tuesday morning as tributes were about to be paid to the first ever female winner of the Fields Medal (received at the ICM in Seoul in 2014), who passed away from cancer in July of 2017. She left her husband Jan Vondrak, also a professor at Stanford, and young daughter Anahita.
The hall was lead in tribute and a minute’s silence, by Turkish mathematician Betul Tanbay, who recalled the illumination problem and compared her late colleague to the candle itself, lighting a path for others to follow. “Maryam showed forever that excellence is not a matter of gender or geography,” she added, “Maths is a universal truth that is available to us all.”
Maryam was born in Tehran in 1977 and considered herself lucky to have finished junior school at the same time as the Iran/Iraq war ended. Had it not, the world may have been forever deprived of her genius.
The moment she arrived at Sharif University as a young mathematics student, it was clear she was destined for greatness. “I haven´t met anyone in Iran like Maryam,” said Professor Saieed Akbari, who taught her a number of courses and tutored the Iranian Math Olympiad teams. “She was unique, very brilliant. When I taught her linear algebra, I gave her a problem which was very difficult to solve in 3 dimensions. Within one week she came back to me with the solution in every dimension! Another time I gave her an open problem with no solution and offered a ten dollar reward without telling the team that there was no solution. Three days later she came back with it solved!” In both instances, the findings of this young math prodigy were published as papers.
As well as being precociously talented, Maryam was a humble individual, shunning the limelight and deflecting her success. “She told me she had excellent parents, was lucky enough to go to a good school and have a group of brilliant friends. And all of these people helped her win the prize.” Professor Akbari added.
Maryam later became a professor of mathematics at Stanford University where her research topics included Teichmüller theory, hyperbolic geometry, ergodic theory and symplectic geometry. When she was awarded the Fields Medal, her work in “the dynamics and geometry of Reimann surfaces and their moduli spaces” was cited as being stand-out.
Doctor Ashraf Daneshkhah of the Women’s Committee at the Iranian Mathematical Society told me that Maryam has “inspired many women in Iran to go into mathematics.” And her compatriot was a shining example, “very polite and quiet, always thinking rather than talking.”
Doctor Ashraf was here to present a proposal that Maryam’s birthday – May 12th – be recognized and supported by the World Meeting for Women in Mathematics as the Women in Mathematics Day. The date will be celebrated every year inside the mathematical community, encouraging females from all over the world to advance their achievements in the field.
I just saw this short movie, and I really enjoy that. I hope you also please watching it.